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Amoxicillin is a derivative of the antibiotic penicillin penicillin was discovered in 1928 by bacteriologists alexander fleming when a culture plate growing staphylococcus bacteria became contaminated with a mold called penicillin chrissa jena fleming found that the mold was inhibiting the growth of the bacteria and isolated the inhibiting substance penicillin

In the 1930s and 1940s scientists howard florey and ernst boris chain created a concentrated form and performed clinical tests with it establishing its use as a bacterial killer or a bactericidal antibiotic in the late 1940s crystallographer dorothy crowfoot hodgkin worked out the structure of penicillin allowing synthetic versions to be created amoxicillin was

Derived at beecham research laboratories by adding an extra amino group on to penicillin and amoxicillin became available in 1972 this addition allows amoxicillin to treat a larger range of bacterial infections amoxicillin is very similar to its predecessor ampicillin differing only by its extra hydroxyl group this oah group makes amoxicillin more soluble allowing

The drug to be absorbed more quickly than ampicillin when taken orally because of this amoxicillin is usually administered through oral ingestion through pills or liquid which sometimes comes in flavors though it can be injected or provided through an iv drip if the patient would have trouble taking it orally amoxicillin is also unaffected by food unlike ampicillin

Ampicillin needs to be taken on an empty stomach to avoid interference and increase antibiotic absorption but amoxicillin can be taken with food or without amoxicillin and other penicillins are beta-lactam antibiotics defined by their beta-lactam ring beta lactam rings inhibit the construction of the bacterial cell wall leading to cell lysis and the destruction

Of the bacterium let’s take a closer look during the formation of a bacterial cell wall layers of peptidoglycan are linked together by small amino acid cross bridges in a process called transpeptidase ssin forming the thick cell wall beta lactams bind to the enzymes that link the amino acid cross bridges inhibiting the enzyme and preventing the synthesis of the

Cell wall this also activates auto lytic enzymes inside the wall the enzymes cause the cell wall to rupture the skilling the bacterium two major enzymes are involved in cross-linking transpeptidase and d al anil carboxy peptidase these enzymes are also known as penicillin binding proteins because of their ability to bind to penicillins eventually several layers of

Peptidoglycan are formed all of which are cross linked to create the cell wall beta-lactam antibiotics include all penicillins that contain a chemical structure called a beta lactam ring this structure is capable of binding to the enzymes that cross-linked peptidoglycan x’ beta lactams interfere with cross-linking by binding to transpeptidase and d al anil carboxy

Peptidase enzymes thus preventing bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting cell wall synthesis the bacterial cell is damaged gram-positive bacteria have a high internal osmotic pressure without a normal rigid cell wall these cells burst when subjected to the low osmotic pressure of their surrounding environment as well the antibiotic penicillin binding protein

Complex stimulates the release of auto license that are capable of digesting the existing cell wall here’s a quick look at penicillin in action causing lysis in e.coli because of the presence of cell walls in many bacteria penicillins have a wide range of bacteria that they can treat however the original penicillin was mostly just able to treat bacteria with

A thick outer cell wall gram positive bacteria and it was not as effective when the bacteria had a phospholipid membrane surrounding its cell wall layer or gram-negative bacteria the added amino group on amoxicillin allows it to penetrate these lipid membranes and reach the cell wall giving amoxicillin an even broader range of treatment some of the most common

Bacterial infections that amoxicillin can treat include ear nose and throat infections respiratory tract infections pharyngitis tonsillitis and skin infections there are some natural defenses against penicillins specifically some bacteria create enzymes to link peptidoglycan walls that resist the binding of the beta-lactam ring if this remodeled dna segment codes

For cross-linking enzymes ie penicillin binding proteins the result is the production of altered penicillin binding proteins these altered penicillin binding proteins can still cross link the peptidoglycan layers of the cell wall but have a reduced affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics thus rendering the bacterium resistant to the effects of penicillin and other

Beta lactam agents other bacteria may produce enzymes known as beta lactamase enzymes that destroy the beta-lactam ring and render it unable to bind to the cross-linking enzymes the enzymes that specifically target beta lactam rings in penicillin are known as penicillin ace the bacteria will begin to produce in activating enzymes these enzymes capable of destroying

Beta-lactam antibiotics are known as beta lactam aizaz beta-lactamase is released from the bacteria and activates the drug before it reaches the cell ultimately the destruction of the beta-lactam ring of the antibiotic renders it incapable of binding to the penicillin binding protein amoxicillin is sometimes coupled with beta lactamase inhibitors in order to make

Amoxicillin effective against bacteria that resist penicillins the beta lactamase inhibitors that accompany amoxicillin will bind irreversibly to the binding site on the bacterium’s penicillin ice enzymes leaving the enzyme ineffective and the way clear for amoxicillin to do its job one example of this is amoxicillin is use in treating acute otitis media a painful

Ear infection where the area behind the eardrum becomes inflamed it is extremely common in children and is a leading cause of clinic visits by children the treatment for acute otitis media makes use of clavel innate or clavulanic acid a beta-lactamase inhibitor that amoxicillin is frequently paired with clavel innate prevents the bacteria from developing resistance

To amoxicillin and amoxicillin sweeps in and destroys cell walls to cure the infection amoxicillin is also often paired with probenecid a drug that causes your liver to remove less antibiotic from your system your body retains more amoxicillin causing the antibiotic to be more effective in treating infection this combination of amoxicillin and probenecid is used in

Treatment of gonorrhea a sexually transmitted disease that affects the throat urethra rectum or cervix this treatment has been found effective due to the fast oral absorption of amoxicillin the retainment of antibiotic due to poor benison and the lack of side-effects amoxicillin and probenecid have also been found to be extremely effective in combating syphilis

In patients with hiv syphilis is another std that causes sores on the genitals rectum or mouth the combination of amoxicillin and probenecid was found to be approximately 95 point five percent successful in treating syphilis in patients with hiv in addition amoxicillin can be used in conjunction with other antibody annex the treat stomach ulcers caused by the

Bacteria helicobacter pylori when amoxicillin is paired with either clarithromycin or omeprazole the ulcer causing bacteria are effectively eliminated as you can see amoxicillin is range is wide and diverse and it has the ability to treat many different bacterial diseases in addition to this it’s beta-lactam ring may also have a use in protecting nerve cells from

Getting damaged nerve cells communicate by sending molecules called neurotransmitters such as glutamate to each other however access glutamate outside the neurons can overstimulate and destroy neurons this is a factor in several neurological diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or als the use of amoxicillin appears to stimulate the production of transport

Proteins that move glutamate back into the nerve cells avoiding high concentrations of glutamate outside the cell overall amoxicillin is an effective widely used fast-acting treatment for bacterial infections it can be combined with many other drugs to expand its range and effectiveness and it may even have a future in combating nerve cell death a hot topic in research

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Amoxicillin By bagel