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Anti HIV Drugs #antiviral #pharmacology

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This video describes the life cycle of HIV, the antiretroviral drugs used against HIV and their mechanism of action. It also describes about highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)

Namaskar today we’ll study anti-hiv drugs or anti-retroviral drugs hiv fulfillment is a human immunodeficiency virus it is a retrovirus a type of rna virus and virus are of two types dna virus and rna virus because the virus has three components in its cell the outer envelope containing the lipoprotein envelope is containing the glycoprotein and the

Inside envelope there is capsule capsule layer consisting of capsulometers and the third component is the nucleic acid core which may be dna or rna and based on that we can have two types of virus dna virus or rna virus if the nucleic acid component is dna then it is a dna virus if it is rna then it is rna virus and one type of rna virus is retrovirus in dna

Virus the dna is converted to messenger rna this process is called transcription where the dna strand double helical structure is converted to the single strands and the one strand is called the same strand the other is anti-sensitive the antisense strand undergoes transcription to form messenger rna rna virus directly provides the rna but retrovirus the rna is

First converted to dna then from dna again by transcription rna will be there so the first process of rna to dna is called the reverse transcription process so the enzyme there in addition to rna hiv has reversed transcriptage enzyme hiv has integrated enzyme which helps in integration of its dna with host cell dna and it has also another enzyme protease the

Glycoproteins surrounded by the envelope are glycoprotein 41 and glycoprotein 120 gp 41 is connected to the envelope at 2gb 41 that is gp120 hiv attacks the the t lymphocytes and the t lymphocytes have cd4 receptor on on their surface and the core receptor is the chemokine receptor 5 ccr5 and gp 120 by gp120 binds to the ccr5 uh the chemokine receptors chemical

And receptor 5 and gp41 binds to the cd4 and so gp 41 interaction occurs with cd4 and gp120 interaction occurs with ccr5 and because of that interaction the virus gets fused or enters into the t lymphocytes after entering there will be on coating and it will release its rna because it is a rna virus and it will also release reverse transcriptase integrates

And protease the rna is converted to viral dna by reverse transcriptase the process is reverse transcription then this viral dna will integrate with the host cell dna to form this pro virus and this pro virus will undergo transcription to produce messenger rna and genomic rna messenger rna will now bind to the host ribosome to synthesize the viral proteins those

Proteins will be degraded by protease to structural and functional proteins all the structural functional proteins and genomic rna they will assemble together to produce the new virion which will be released from the t leukocytes after bursting of the teleport so the drugs uh used in hiv can be the number one the number the drugs which inhibit entry or

Fusion of the virus number two inhibits reverse transcriptase number three inhibits protease number four enables integrates and we can see the classification now entry or fusion inhibitors by binding to gp41 subunit and provide type by binding to gp120 by inhibiting or by acting as antagonist of ccr5 core receptor for example maraviro vikrivi rock reverse

Transcriptage which can be either nucleoside analogues or nucleotide analogues or non-nucleosides nucleosides the reverse transcriptome uterus are analog of either thymidine or cytosine or guanosine or adenosine thymine analogues like gito food and stabulin cytosine cytosine analogues like lamigoden gelsitabine and tris cytopine guanosine analogs like abyss of

Here adenosine analogues like didonosine then uh nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors nucleotide is the nucleoside plus phosphate so adenosine monophosphate analogues like tenofovir are the examples of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors so nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor you can start from say nrti and nucleotide reverse transcription

You can say ntrti then some uh reverse transitory generators they directly act on at the catalytic site of the reverse transcriptase enzyme they are not analogs of any nucleotides so they are called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in an rti example f of iran’s navy rapin delavedin rilpiverin duravirin then then we can have integrated inhibitors

Like raltegraph here victor gravity gravity gravity and a new drug is there which is an maturation inhibitor which is a maturation inhibitor it is a semi-synthetic derivative from the chinese harbor uh psi gm and it inhibits maturation that is uh viral maturation involves processing of viral proteins to make virus infectious and when it is inhibited there will

Be release of non-infectious virus which cannot infect the host cells so these are all anti-retroviral drugs and they have a tendency to develop resistance so the tor one term is used called heart highly active antiretroviral therapy in which a combination of antiretroviral drugs are used so the heart includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptonities and

One protein inhibitor so it is a combination of either three to four drugs and which may be two nucleotide reverse transcriptome generators and one non-nucleoceves transcript is inhibited inhibitor and one protease inhibitor or it can be one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor one non-nucleoside reverse transcrition inhibitor and two protease inhibitors

Or it can be one nucleotide inverse transcriptase inhibitor one non nucleoside inverse transcriptometer and one protease inhibitor or it can be one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor one nucleotide reverse transcripta and one non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor so we can see here examples empties citabin plus tenofovir plus lp variant so this

Is an example of this one one nucleoside reverse transcriptome generator one nucleotide reverse transition meter and one non non nucleotide reverse transcriptome generator another example empty setup in plus ten of average plus uh so this is one example of this one one nucleoside reverse transcriptometer one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor and one

Integration emitter so this is all about antiretroviral drugs thank you you

Transcribed from video
Anti HIV Drugs #antiviral #pharmacology By PKS Classes