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Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Among the antihypertensive agents are diuretics; (especially diuretics, thiazide); adrenergic beta-antagonists; adrenergic alpha-antagonists; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; calcium channel blockers; ganglionic blockers; and vasodilator agents.

Hello dear students today we will discuss on antihypertensive so let us start with the hypertension etiology of hypertension a specific cause of hypertension established in only 10 to 15 percent of the patient patients in whom know a specific cause of hypertension are said to have essential or primary hypertension patient with a specific ideology are said to have

Secondary hypertension and genetic factor physiological stress and environmental and dietary factors as contributing to the development of hypertension the heritability of essential hypertension is estimated to be about 30 percent this slide shows classification of hypertension on the basis of blood pressure again there are two type there’s a systolic as well

As diastolic pressure mm of hg category wise so normal blood pressure of a person is calculated as 120 and 80 120 that is the systolic and 80 is of diastolic pressure the person is considered as a normal person 120 to 150 or 150 to 80 is considered are pre-hypertension more than 140 and 90 is considered hypertension and 140 to 159 oblique 90 to 90 percent is

Considered as stage 1 hypertension more than 160 and 100 of diastolic pressure is considered as stage 2 hypertension now normal regulation of blood pressure according to the hydraulic equation arterial blood pressure is directly proportionate to the product of blood flow that is the cardiac output co and the resistance to passage of blood through pre-capillary

Arterioles peripheral vascular resistance that is the pvr into blood pressure is equal to cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance blood pressure is maintained by first moment-to-moment regulation of cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance exerted at three atomic sites arterioles post capillary manual that is the capacitance vessel and heart

Next is the kidney and bioreflexes mediated by autonomic nerve that is the combination with humoral mechanism including the renin-angiotensin endosterone system local release of vasoactive substances now let us discuss on antihypertensive agent variety of antihypertensive agents are available which are prescribed according to the severity age sex of the

Patient so let us start with the diuretics an important anti-hypertensive agent includes thiazide hydrochlorothiazide chloride on endobamide and high ceiling diuretics are the fruciamide and taurosimile granic acid that is the potassium is bearing spironolactone amyloids angiotensin converting inhibitors that is the captopril analypral lacinopril perrinol april

Ramipril and fosinopril etc angiotensin that is the 81 receptor blockers includes low saltine candy satin etc direct renin inhibitors includes alice karen and beta-addressing blocker includes propanol metal prolol as well as ethanol continues this series again calcium channel blockers play an important role as antihypertensive agents which includes varapmil ltsm

Nephiti pain amylodipine as etc beta alpha energy blockers includes levital and carvidial alpha energy blockers brazosin terrazosine and phenoxy benzamine etc again central sympatholitis includes clonidine as well as methyl dopa vasodilators variety of exodiameters are available vasodilators articular that’s the hydrolazine and minoxidil dioxide arteriolar

Plus venous that is the sodium nitro procyte other antihypertensive agents are also available which are very important that is the adrenergic neuron blockers resulting in guanidine and ganglionic blockers that is the pantolinium etc this slide show site of action of the major classes of antihypertensive as we have already discussed there are various sites are

Available and they are effectively work now treatment of hypertension hypertension is curable and it is controlled by taking the proper medicines vasodilators and some are how not prescribed for example hydrolyzing dihydralazine and minoxidil are not used as primary drugs to treat hypertension these vasodilators act by producing relaxation of vascular smooth

Muscle primarily in arteries and arterioles this result in decreased peripheral resistance both agent produces reflux stimulation of the heart resulting in the competing reflexes of increased myocardial contractility heart rate and oxygen consumption hydrolyzing is an accepted medication for controlling blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension this

Drug is used topically to treat male pattern baldness with that hypertensive emergency it is rare but life-threatening conditions systolic vp that is a 180 mmg or diastolic vp more than 120 mm of energy with evidence of impending or progressive target organ damage such as stroke as well as the mi myocardial infraction a variety of medications are used including

Calcium channel blocker that is the nicardipine and clavity pain nitric oxide vessel dilators and energy receptor antagonists that is the asmolol and levitolone etc the vasodilator hydrolyzine and the dopamine agonist phenol dopam now let us discuss on resistant hypertension it is defined as blood pressure that remains elevated despite administration of an

Optimal three drug regimen that includes a diuretic the most common causes of resistance hypertension poor compliance excessive ethanol intake and concomitant conditions like diabetes obesity sleep apnea and hyper endosterolism high salt intake that is a metabolic syndrome and component medications that are the sympathomimetrics non-steroidal anti-inflammatory

Or antidepressant medication insufficient dose drug and combination summary of well-held or the organization and health minister of india and british hypertension society that bhs 2004 guidelines except for stage 2 hypertension start with the single most appropriate drug followed by abcd rule includes as inhibitors and b beta blockers c c c b and d diuretics

While a and b are preferred in younger patients less than 55 years of age or are preferred in the older more than 55 year of age for the step one or monotherapy initiate therapy at low dose if needed increase those moderately if only partial response is obtained add a drug from another complementary class or changed to low dose combinations summary of who is

H and british hypertension society 2004 guidelines if no response changed to a drug from another class are low dose combination from other classes in case of side effects to the initially chosen drug either substitute with drug or another class of reduced dose majority of stage two hypertensives are started on a two drip combination dear friends this slides

Show lifestyle modification and that is the initial drug choice without compelling indications and with compelling indication that is the stage one stage two stage and drug for the compelling indications already combinations of that should be avoided there are various conditions where antihypertensives should be avoided like combination possible effect and

Alpha orbital energy blocker with clonidine apparent antagonism of clonidine action has been observed hydrolyzing with dihydropyridine that is a dhb or brazosin hemodynamic action variable or dsm with beta blocker bradycardia av block and methyl dopa with clonidine or two drugs of the same class again continuation with series that is a possible combination

Of anti-hypertensive drugs continuous green line preferred combinations dotted green line acceptable combination and dotted black line that is a less usual combination red line indicates unusual combination of antibiotic agents so dear friends this is all about the antihypertensive agents and already we have discussed about the hypertension it is cured and

Controlled by taking the proper exercise proper medicine and by controlling of the person affected thank you for your listening thank you

Transcribed from video
Antihypertensives By Metro College of Pharmacy