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Atenolol | Wikipedia audio article

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Atenolol is a medication of the beta blockers type primarily used to treat high blood pressure and angina other uses include the prevention of migraines it works by slowing down the heart and reducing its workload unlike propranolol etenolol does not readily pass through the blood-brain barrier thus decreasing the incidence of central nervous system side effects

Introduced in 1976 atenolol was developed as a replacement for propranolol in the treatment of hypertension atenolol is one of the most widely used beta blockers in the united kingdom and was once the first line treatment for hypertension the role for beta blockers in general in hypertension was downgraded in june 2006 in the united kingdom and later in the

United states as they are less appropriate than newer blood pressure medications including calcium channel blockers thiazide diuretics angiotensin converting enzyme ace inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers particularly in the elderly medical uses atenolol is used for a number of conditions including hypertension angina long qt syndrome acute myocardial

Infarction supraventricular tachycardia ventricular tachycardia and the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal off-label uses of atenolol as with other cardioselective beta blockers include symptomatic treatment of psychological issues such as anxiety beta blockers are effective for some in treating the somatic physical effects of anxiety in these instances dosing is used

As needed instead of regular daily dosing due to its hydrophilic water attracting properties the drug is less suitable in migraine prophylaxis compared to propranolol because for this indication atenolol would have to reach the brain in high concentrations which is not the case because atenolol does not pass through the blood-brain barrier side effects atenolol

Was the main beta blocker identified as carrying a higher risk of provoking type 2 diabetes leading to its downgrading in the united kingdom in june 2006 to fourth line agent in the management of hypertension antihypertensive therapy with atenolol provides weaker protective action against cardiovascular complications eg myocardial infarction and stroke compared to

Other anti-hypertensive drugs in some cases diuretics are superior in addition atenolol has been found to lack mortality benefits and even to increase mortality in older adults overdose symptoms of overdose are due to excessive pharmacodynamic actions on beta-1 and also beta-2 receptors these include bradycardia slow heartbeat severe hypotension with shock acute

Heart failure hypoglycemia and bronchospastic reactions treatment is largely symptomatic hospitalization and intensive monitoring is indicated activated charcoal is useful to absorb the drug atropine will counteract bradycardia glucagon helps with hypoglycemia dobutamine can be given against hypotension and the inhalation of a beta-2 mimetic as hexaprenaline or

Salbutamol will terminate bronchospasms blood or plasma atenolol concentrations may be measured to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to assist in a metacolegal death investigation plasma levels are usually less than three milligrams per liter during therapeutic administration but can range from three to thirty milligrams per liter in

Overdose victims society and culture atenolol has been given as an example of how slow healthcare providers are to change their prescribing practices in the face of medical evidence that indicates that a drug is ineffective in 2012 33.8 million prescriptions were written to american patients for this drug in 2014 it was in the top most common one percent of drugs

Prescribed to medicare patients although the number of prescriptions has been declining steadily since the evidence against its efficacy was published it has been estimated that it would take 20 years for doctors to stop prescribing it for hypertension references

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Atenolol | Wikipedia audio article By Subhajit Sahu