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CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chemistry in Everyday Life Therapeutic Action of Differ |Extraminds

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CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

Now let us classify the drugs on the basis of the therapeutic action so the therapeutic action of different classes of drugs the first category in this comes is the antacids the antacids are those drugs or those chemical substances which are taken to what get prevention or to get relief from the acidity or from the hcl which is secreted in excess in our stomach

Maybe due to some food substances which we have taken what happens is some excess of hcl is being secreted and that is being prevented that is can that can be cured by taking those a certain basis like the common one are sodium hydrogen carbonate aluminum magnesium hydroxide mixtures those are taken which actually utilizes the excess of the hcl taken and thus prevents

The acidity so hyper acidity or acidity is prevented by taking those um these bases and these are called antacids now this is actually a time a time relief or for a relief for a time being because those are those bases which are being sick those acids which are secreted in excess is being are being neutralized now if too much of base is taken that even can cause

Alkanine as the alkaline nature of the or alkaline medium in the stomach and that can still stimulate more of those secretions let’s see it and that is what that can lead to ulcers so that is not a very good preventive measure but yes for an immediate effect we can take those these antacids the second category of the drugs on the basis of the therapeutic actions

Are antihistamines see histamines are those chemicals which are actually being secreted by the mast cells which are there lying beneath just our skin to of it because of the allergic action now these chemical substances they interact with our skins our war for the on the nasal passage on our eyes and and they blocks the nestle passage cause ah what problems in

The breathing can cause conjunctivitis in the eyes and on the skin rashes etc now a very the discovery made a lot of difference in the this in the treatment of the hyper acidity it was realized that there are certain substances which interacts with those substances which are receptors in the stomach which decrease pepsilon hcl now then we developed drugs which

Stops these the interaction of these chemical substances to those receptors now such drugs are again are called antihistamines but they prevents the secretion of the hcl in the stomach now the most two the two common most common drugs on this cat of this category are symmetric dine and into dyne and they’re the largest selling drugs in the in the category the reason

Being because they prevents the secretion of hcl by stopping the interaction of those chemical substances with the receptors which secretes ethyl now we know that histamines other causes they can just the blockage of the of the windpipe the the iso figures because of the secretion of those substances we have a histamine and it causes conjunctivitis nasal blockage

Etc so we use this vasodilators we use a certain chemical substances which which basically gives relief to us from uh this type of histamines antihistamines usually are ah competitive inhibitors they competes with the ah the substances enzymes and stops the enzymatic activities the third category of drugs on the basis of their therapeutic actions are your are

Neurologically active drugs now the first category of neurologically active drugs are tranquilizers tranquilizers are those chemical substances which are used to cure mild or severe mental diseases mental depressions depressions hypertensions etcetera so anybody who’s having some mental problem they are given these kind of chemical substances which are called or

Drugs which are called tranquilizers now what will it has been realized that there is a hormone or a chemical messenger called nor adrenaline which is mainly responsible for keeping what keeping us active and keeping giving us a a feeling of well-being when its level goes down in the blood we feel depression we will we feel depressed so what these drugs basically

Does is that they stop the what the breaking down of this chemical nor adrenaline and thus they are therefore they prevents what they maintains the level of this neural in the blood and they therefore they act as antidepressant drugs an antidepressant drugs are of various types various categories and equivalent is a very important commonly used antidepressant drug

We have another category of drugs which are again a tranquilizer which are called barbiturates all which are also called derivatives of barbituric acids like we have verona luminal cyclonal etc all these that are are actually are hypnotic they induces sleep but yes they are very good tranquilizers the second category of neurologically active drugs are analgesics

See analgesics are those drugs which gives us relief from the pain now these drugs basically are of two types non-narcotic and narcotic non-narcotic are non-addictive in nature we can take them anytime and they will it will not be habitual once we take them now aspirin and paracetamols are the most commonly used energetics they give us relief from the pain there

Is one more important use of the aspirin is that it is also used as what blood thinner there are other uses of the aspirin also they use in the many other curing of the diseases but this time it is its main uses is in now as a non-narcotic energetic narcotic analgesics are addictive in nature once taken they will you will get an habit of taking them now the common

Examples are here morphine codeine heroin etc since morphine and heroines are basically are the products or the one which we obtain from poppy seeds there’s also called opiates the obtained from opium now these are hypnotic in nature they induce a sleep and if taken in overdoses they may lead to death so these are your analgesics neurologically active drugs the

Fourth category of drugs on the basis of their therapeutic actions are the antimicrobials see we get diseases or infections due to a lot of bacteria viruses fungal alga and other types of organisms support pathogens etc all these are microorganisms so in order to prevent us from in order to actually get to get cure from those diseases or those problems what we have

To do either we have to stop their growth or we have to kill those these microorganisms and that is why we have developed these antimicrobials now they are basically they are of two types vast are called antibiotics antibiotics are those drugs basic these are chemical substances which are obtained from living of our microorganisms and are used to stop or to kill

The other microorganisms the chemical substances which are obtained from microorganisms and are used to stop the growth of the microorganisms and you are used to kill the other microorganisms are called antibiotics the most commonly used antibiotics we know we have been knowing is pencilin discovered by the alexandra fleming if we are knowing it from the ah world

War time that they are the most commonly used antimicrobial antimicrobials because they are the ones which give us a lot of protection against these microorganism microbial infections now these antibiotics can be categorized into two types of bacteria bactericidal and bacteriostatic now bactericidal are those antibiotics which kills the microorganisms they are

Very strong like penicillin and afloxacin whereas we have those antibiotics which are called bacteriostatic they stop the growth of the microorganisms and they are called erythromycin tetracycline and chloroanthinol so these are the two basic types of antibiotics we have we also classify the antibiotics into two categories called broad spectrum and narrow spectrum

Broad spectrum antibiotics are those antibiotics which are those antibiotics which can be used with one antibody can use for curing of many diseases like we have chloramphenol and tetracycline these are two are called are basically are broad spectrum and antibody they can be used to cure number of diseases whereas simultaneously we have such antibodies with which

Are very specifically used for specific type of diseases or infections or for microorganisms and such are called narrow spectrum pencilin is a narrow spectrum antibiotic so these are your commonly used or type of antibiotics the second category of anti-microbials are antiseptics and disinfectants let us first do antiseptics the chemical substances which are used to

What clean and to uh which are used for on wounds and cuts or which are used to clean the wounds and the cuts are called and antiseptics they are actually safe for human tissues there does not cause any harm and they they prevents or kills the microbial microorganisms which are there on those cuts and wounds and thus prevents uh us from getting infection now the

Commonly used antiseptics are sofromycin and furama ferrocene the other one commonly used on the skin on the skin whereas you can use tensor iodine which is a two to three percent iodine solution in alcohol which again is a very important commonly used um antiseptic with the most commonly used as a dettol we see all the all users on the household in our day-to-day

Alive in our houses it’s a mixture of chloro xenon and terpenol which is again is a very important very effective antiseptic we also use this idoform as iodoform powder as a as an antiseptic then we have disinfectants disinfectants are again are the chemical substances which kills the microorgan microorganisms and they are mainly used to what clean the toilets

The flows and instruments and drainage systems so from where we want to get rid of the germs and the microbes we use what the chemical substances disinfectants now what is my basic difference between the two is antiseptics are safe for human tissues disinfectants are not safe for human tissues they are present in higher concentration we cannot use disinfectants to

Clean up wounds that’s the most important it’s fine now phenol one percent solution of phenol is a very good disinfectant and simultaneously it’s 0.2 percent solution is a very good antiseptic also because it’s very low concentration then chlorine from 0.2 to 0.4 ppm aqua solution and so2 in a very dilute conditions are also a very important disinfectants which are

Used to clean floors ah drainage systems instruments surgical instruments etc the next category of drugs on the basis of the therapeutic actions are anti-fertility drugs see we have developed these drugs in the medicines and there and that is why we have been able to prevent ourselves from the infections from the diseases and we have been able to very successful to

Cure ourselves from the diseases and infections and that is why it has increased the the uh the the lifespan of a human beings now that is why the mortality disease is not going to early down but other thing other important thing is that simultaneously the a lot of birds are taking place because and that is why the population is increasing day by day now therefore

We have to control those uh there’s the popular increase in the population and anti-fertility drugs play is a very important role in this regard these nt40 drugs are artificial or synthetic estrogen or progesterone hormones which are mainly responsible for this purpose now when taken in the form of the pills either in the form of a morning after pills or they can

Take it before to prevent the our the pregnancies these these drugs basically prevents ah the females getting pregnant the uh north indron is a most commonly used progesterone synthetic progesterone drug which is being taken to prevent the pregnancy so these are your anti-fertility drugs

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CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chemistry in Everyday Life Therapeutic Action of Differ |Extraminds By Extraminds