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Electrolyte Imbalance: Clinical application | Digoxin | DKA | Blood transfusion | USMLE | MCQs

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This video contains a quiz on Electrolyte imbalance

Hello everyone i’m ishwari in this video we’re gonna solve five questions on electrolytes electrolytes is a huge topic so if you guys want me to make more videos on this give this video a thumbs up and comment below that will really help me figure out what kind of content you’ll want to see more often if you’re a medical student do subscribe to my channel as i

Make videos on different medical topics along with quizzes you will also find many interviews with doctors clinical experiences and study tips on my channel let’s begin which of the following can increase the risk of digoxin toxicity option a hyperkalemia option b hypokalemia the answer to this question is hypokalemia let’s assume this is a cardiac cell whenever

The amount of calcium inside the cell is high the contraction will increase this is an ion exchanger when active it brings sodium inside the cell and takes calcium out of the cell low calcium inside low contraction for this ion exchange it sodium should be available outside that is taken care of by the sodium potassium adipase pump this pumps potassium inside

The cell and sodium outside so when this pump is functioning potassium goes in and sodium goes out since sodium is available for the exchanger to work calcium is ultimately transferred out of the cell digoxin increases contractility by inhibiting this pump potassium cannot go in so sodium can’t go out ultimately sodium is not available for the ion exchanger

To function so more calcium is available inside the cell digoxin competes with potassium to bind to this pump when there is hypokalemia digoxin does not have to compete so there is a higher chance of digoxin toxicity on the other hand when there’s a lot of digoxin present potassium can not enter the cell so increased digoxin levels can lead to hyperkalemia

Question number two in diabetic ketoacidosis there is potassium option a depletion option b retention the answer to this question is depletion diabetic ketoacidosis is seen in patients with type 1 diabetes these patients do not produce insulin so the amount of glucose in the blood is high along with ketones these substances increase the osmolarity this attracts

A lot of water and leads to loss of water along with electrolytes in the urine this is called osmotic diuresis potassium is also lost in this form however these patients have hyperkalemia this is because insulin is involved in moving potassium inside the cell a lack of insulin along with acidosis caused by ketones leads to hyperkalemia so patients with diabetic

Ketoacidosis have hyperkalemia although there is a depletion of potassium from the body question number three qt prolongation on an ecg of a patient who received blood transfusion is seen because option a hyperkalemia option b hypocalcemia the answer to this question is hypocalcemia when blood is stored citrate is added as an anticoagulant citrate binds to free

Calcium in the blood so the amount of free calcium decreases hypoglycemia can cause qt prolongation on an ecg blood transfusion can also cause hyperkalemia when stored over a long period of time red blood cells tend to lies the potassium inside the cells is released if transfused it can lead to hyperkalemia in patients however hyperkalemia will have a short cutie

Interval and not a prolonged one question number four sarcoidosis can cause option a high calcium low phosphate option b high calcium high phosphate option c none of the above the answer to this question is high calcium and high phosphate sarcoidosis is characterized by non-caseating granulomas the macrophages produce one alpha hydroxylase one alpha hydroxylase

Activates vitamin d this results in increased calcium as well as phosphate levels high calcium and low phosphate levels is seen in hyperparathyroidism question number five metabolic alkalosis hyperkalemia high urine chloride levels what is the most likely cause of this option a vomiting option b diuretic use the answer to this question is diuretic use when a

Person vomits acid is lost from the stomach loss of acid leads to alkalosis since hydrochloric acid is lost vomiting leads to a decrease in chloride levels since the chloride level in the body is low there won’t be a lot of chloride excreted by the kidneys however in patients who are on a diuretic there is a loss of sodium chloride in the urine so along with

Alkalosis and hypokalemia these patients will also have a high urine chloride level i hope you guys like this video if you want to quiz yourself on urinary incontinence check this video out and if you are applying for residency in the u.s this playlist will provide some guidance to you thank you for watching

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Electrolyte Imbalance: Clinical application | Digoxin | DKA | Blood transfusion | USMLE | MCQs By Ishwari Chandran