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Endocrine Ability of Heart, Kidney, Liver and Skin

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Aside from all the different types of endocrine glands that we focused on previously there exist other organs in our body that also have endocrine capabilities that is many organs in our body have the ability to actually produce hormones and release them into our bloodstream so let’s discuss these other organs that also have endocrine capabilities so we have kidneys we

Have the heart we have the skin we have the pineal gland or the pineal body we have the liver and we have our stomach so let’s begin by briefly discussing some of the hormones released by our kidneys now the two hormones that we’re going to discuss is urethra po eaten and also our calcitriol now i also briefly discussed a proteolytic enzyme known as renal but renin

Is not actually a hormone and that’s exactly why i place the star next to number one so a special type of cell our kidney cell known as the granular cell or the juxtaglomerular cell is responsible for synthesizing and secreting the proteolytic enzyme renin now rieman is not actually a hormone it’s a proteolytic enzyme but rhian is used in this arena angiotensin

Aldosterone pathway to actually produce important types of hormones namely angiotensin ii and aldosterone as well as adh that basically are responsible for regulating blood pressure as well as the blood volume inside our blood vessels so rina is not a hormone but it is an important molecule that is used to produce important hormones now an actual hormone that

Is released by the cells in the kidney is erythropoietin as well as calcitriol now urethra poitain is released by special type of cell inside the kidney known as the extra gram allah-allah mesangial cells now these cells release our urethra pollutant which is basic a glycoprotein hormone it’s a hormone that is composed of a peptide that has a glycogen it has a

Sugar component attached to that protein now this protein this hormone is released when we have a low concentration of oxygen inside our blood and what it does is it stimulates the red bone marrow inside our bone to basically produce and release red blood cells also known as erythrocytes and that’s exactly why this is known as erythropoietin because it produces

More erythrocytes now if we have more red blood cells inside our blood stream that means our oxygen level inside our blood will increase so that means urethra per week basically increases the amount of oxygen that is found inside our blood now the second type of hormone released by our kidneys is calcitriol and calcitriol is actually a lipid soluble hormone that

Is an active form of vitamin d and what it basically does is it stimulates the increase in the calcium and phosphate ion concentration inside our blood so this is basically used to control and regulate the amount of calcium found inside our blood so it is stimulated it is released when we have a low concentration of calcium in the blood and what it does is it

Ultimately increases the amount of calcium inside our blood by two methods firstly it increases the ability of our cells in the gut in our intestines to basically absorb more calcium from our food and more phosphate ions from our food and secondly it also increases bone resorption it increases the amount of bone matrix that breaks down and releases our calcium

And phosphate ions into our blood so the kidneys produce two important hormones urethra po eaten and calcitriol and it also produces a proteolytic meanin that is necessary of in producing angiotensin 1 angiotensin 2 and aldosterone as well as stimulating the release of adh the antidiuretic hormone by the posterior pituitary gland now let’s move on to our second

Oregon the heart so the heart is basically a organ that consists of our cardiac muscle cells also known as cardiac myocytes now special types of cardiac myocytes located in the atria region of our heart in the upper chambers of the heart basically are responsible for releasing an important type of peptide hormone known as the atrial natriuretic peptide or a&p

And what this hormone basically does is it dilates our blood vessels so this is a vasodilator that basically means it increases the thickness of our blood vessels and that decreases our blood pressure and what it also does is it decreases the amount of blood volume found inside our blood and that also decreases our blood pressure so basically the a&p hormone

Is the opposite of aldosterone so recall that aldosterone actually increases the amount of sodium that we take back into our blood but what a and p does what the atrial natriuretic peptide hormone does is it basically increases the amount of sodium that we secrete into our urine and that decreases the amount of solute inside our blood and that ultimately increases

The amount of water that leaves our blood system so the atrial natriuretic peptide hormone released by the heart is responsible for controlling the blood pressure for decreasing our blood pressure inside our body so this is released when we have a very high blood pressure inside our blood vessels of the heart and of the body now let’s move on to another oregon the

Third oregon the skin now the skin doesn’t actually produce a hormone directly what it does is it produces a pre hormone a molecule that eventually is used to form a hormone in fact we produce this molecule inside the skin known as our cholecalciferol that is eventually used to produce calcitriol so basically in the inside our skin cells we use uv radiation so the

Energy that comes from uv radiation to basically transform kohli calcitriol or actually to to form cholecalciferol and then the cholecalciferol which is basically vitamin d travels into our liver and inside the liver the cholecalciferol is transformed into our cal sitio and then the cal sileo that is formed in the liver travels into our kidneys and inside the

Kidneys that cal city all is transformed into our calcitriol and that calcitriol is ultimately used to regulate the calcium concentration inside arab blood so we see the cholecalciferol is the molecule that is ultimately used to produce our calcitriol by the kidneys now let’s move on to our pineal body also known as the pineal gland so basically this is the section

The gland in our brain that is used to produce a hormone known as melatonin and melatonin is used to basically regulate our sleep whale a sleep-wake cycle in our body so there should be an e after the k now let’s move on to our liver so we actually briefly discussed an important type of hormone that is produced by the liver when we mentioned and discussed the reen

And angio test and aldosterone pathway so basically the liver is responsible for producing angiotensin hormone remember our zymogen form of this hormone that is produced by the liver is known as angiotensinogen and the angiotensinogen is basically used and transformed into the active form by the renin that is produced by the kidneys so angiotensin is the peptide

Hormone produced and released by the liver cells in its inactive zymogen forum called angiotensinogen it helps us regulate the blood volume as well as the blood pressure inside our body now another important type of hormone released by our liver is a hormone known as thrombopoietin and what this is is is it basically is a glycoprotein and this glycoprotein hormone

Which binds onto the cell membrane of target cells basically helps us produce platelets that are used in blood clotting and we’ll – and we’ll discuss the function of this much more in much more detail when we’ll discuss the blood clot cascade now the final organ that i’d like to briefly discuss is the stomach the stomach actually produces many different hormones

And many different enzymes as does our small intestine and we’ll discuss this in much more detail when we’ll discuss our digestive system in this lecture i’d like to briefly mention that the stomach releases a peptide hormone known as gastrin and gastrin is basically used to stimulate the secretion of hydrochloric acid known as gastric acid by the parietal cells

Of our stomach and that basically decreases our ph and increases our acidity inside our stomach and that gets our body ready for the process of digestion the breakdown of the matter macromolecules in our food that we ingest into smaller pieces so we can ingest those pieces into our body into our bloodstream

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Endocrine Ability of Heart, Kidney, Liver and Skin By Andrey K