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Female reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone starting with the estrogen 17 beta estradiol is strong and estrogen so these are different chemical structures of the estrogen estradiol is 15 to 80 times more potent than istron and estriol site of synthesis estrogens are synthesized by the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles corpus luteum and placenta

Estrogen secretion occurs in two peaks during the menstrual cycle a larger peak during the proliferative phase just before the ovulation and the smaller peak in the mid secretory phase the normal level of the estrogen is 35 microgram per day in the early follicular phase which reaches 400 microgram per day just before the ovulation that is the highest level and in

The mid luteal phase the level of estrogen decreases to 250 microgram per day now the mechanism of action of estrogen estrogen as a steroid hormone it binds with the receptor that is present in the nucleus and increases the formation of mrna there are two types of estrogen receptors er alpha and er beta estrogen receptor beta and estrogen receptor alpha er alpha

Are present mainly on the uterus liver kidney and heart however the ear beta present in the ovaries brain gi tract hemopoietic tissue lungs and prostate estrogen have both genomic and non-genomic actions so that is the mechanism of action of estrogen now the functions of estrogen so this estrogen causes the proliferation of the cell as well as the growth of the

Reproductive organs so first reproductive organ uterus at puberty and during pregnancy it causes the enlargement of uterus it produces the proliferative changes of the endometrial glands stromal cells and blood vessels under the effect of estrogen there is a re-epithelialization of the endometrium and there is increase in the thickness of the endometrium occurs

It acts on the myometrium so there is increase in the thickness and contractility of the uterus cervical secretions become thin stingy so in front pattern after the drying under the effect of estrogen all these changes occur in the uterus as well as the cervix in the fallopian tubes proliferation of glandular tissue as well as increase in the number and activity

Of the ciliated epithelium internal and external genital organs size of the uterus fallopian tubes and vaginas increase under the effect of estrogen there is enlargement of external genitalia there is deposition of fat in mons pubis and labia change in the vaginal epithelium which is more resistance to trauma and infection the changes in the breast growth of the

Stroma and ducts under the effect of estrogen there is growth of the stroma and ducts of the breast as well there is occurring of the pigmentation of the areola deposition of the fats so here inside the brace the development of lobules and alveolitis under the effect of progesterone the effect of estrogen on protein metabolism it causes the slightly positive of the

Nitrogen balance on the fat metabolism there is deposition of fat in subcutaneous tissue braised buttocks and thighs so it produces a feminine characteristic in the females under the effect of estrogen the hair distribution occurs in the pubic and axillary region skin becomes soft smooth and more vascular but is due to the effect of estrogens electrolyte balance

Sodium and water retention by the kidney so these are the effect of estrogen on fat metabolism on the skeletal it increases the osteoblastic activity early union of the epiphysis takes place earlier than boys so in females the union of epiphysis occurs earlier than that of the boys lack of estrogen after menopause causes the osteoporosis intracellular effect it

Increases the protein synthesis on the central nervous system it increases the libido slows down the alzheimer’s disease so estrogen having the effect on the central nervous system and it slows down the alzheimer’s disease on the endocrine it decreases the fs but either it increase or decrease the luteinizing hormone depending upon the days of the menstrual cycle

So females in the reproductive age are less prone to cardiac disease because estrogen having effect on the cholesterol and it is decreases the level of cholesterol in the blood vessels the estrogen causes the vasodilatation and decrease in the atherogenesis process on the large doses of the estrogen it causes the thrombosis due to the increase in the estrogen

Levels after the puberty the female having the feminine as well as side type of behavior the effect on the platelet there is increase in the stickiness and on the prolactin it increases the secretion of prolactin so these are the different functions of the estrogen now we are seeing the next hormone progesterone progesterone is secreted from the corpus luteum

Placenta and ovarian follicle it is formed from the preglinolone the plasma concentration of progesterone in the follicular phase is about 0.9 nanogram per ml and in the luteal phase its peak is 18 nanogram per ml progesterone is mainly bound to the plasma proteins only 2 percentage circulate freely in the plasma however 80 percentage is bound to albumin and 18

Percentage is bound to corticosteroid binding globulin now the metabolism of progesterone in the liver it is converted to pregnancy oil which forms glucuronide conjugates and excreted in the urine so these are some basics about the progesterone now we are continuing to the functions of the progesterone on the uterus it increases the secretory changes in the

Endometrium during the later one half of the menstrual cycle it decreases the frequency and intensity of the uterine contractions the progesterone is the hormone that promotes the pregnancy or that favors the implantation of the fertilized worm on the walls of the uterine cavity which are the effect of progesterone on the fallopian tubes it promotes secretory

Changes in the fallopian tube lining mucosa it provides nutrition to the fertilizer worm before the implantation now the effect of progesterone on breast it promotes the development of lobules and alveoli so here it makes the mammary gland to be secretory in nature it causes the swelling of the breast electrolyte balance there is increase in the sodium and

Water retention thermogenic effect of the progesterone it increases the basal body temperature by 0.5 degree celsius at the time of ovulation the effect of progesterone on respiration it increases and produces the tachypnea therefore here the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide decreases in the pregnancy now the effect of progesterone on blood pressure it

Decreases the diastolic blood pressure because it causes the vasodilation however it increases the systolic blood pressure because it causes the fluid expansion so these are different functions of the progesterone now we are going to see how the lh and fsh having the effect on different thicker cells and granulosa cells in the different phases of the ovarian

Cycle or simply menstrual cycle so starting from the follicular phase in the follicular phase it is also known as proliferative phase in case of endometrial cycle here the thicker cells and this one it is the granulosa cell so here under the effect of lh or luteinizing hormone the thickest cell releases the androstenedione directly in the circulation as well as

This androstenedione crosses the basement membrane and enter into the granulosa cell and in the granulosa cell this androstenedione is converted to estradiol and this estradiol has been released into the blood circulation and fsh that is the follicle stimulating hormone also having the effect in the conversion of androstenedione to the estradiol so under the

Effect of lh nfss in the follicular phase there is increase in the level of estrogen now in the luteal phase or during the pregnancy or during the secretory phase of the endometrial cycle now here the thicker cells are converted to thicker luteal cell because the graphene follicle is now in the luteal phase it is known as corpus luteum so under the effect of lh

There is also synthesis of the androstenedione takes place but here in the luteal phase on the granulosa cell or lutein shows two type of effect first it causes the androstenedione converter to estradiol that means the estrogen as well as it also induce or stimulate the production of progesterone from the cholesterol so here one thing we have to note down that

The granulosa cell under the effect of fsh produce only the estradiol or estrogen however under the effect of lh the granulosa cell are more dominantly producing the progesterone but still it also produces the estrogen or the estradiol all right so these are the two different phases follicular phase and luteal phase and how the allies and fsh anterior pituitary

Hormones affecting the thickest cell and granulosa cells and how the estrogen and progesterone has been released into the circulation all right so if you like this presentation please try to share it with your best friends group and colleagues

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