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How to Synthesize Phenytoin from Benzil

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Urea may be recognized as a structural unit in 5,5-diphenyl hydantoin

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Calculation and references first that is in the aim synthesis of phenytoin from benzyl second requirement that is contained chemicals first that is in the benzyl required two point five point three gram urea three gram 15 ml of 30 aqueous naoh ethanol 75 ml and concentrated hydrochloric acid from the requirement of glassware that is required rbf that is round

Bottom flask reflux condenser then bigger conical flask then glass rod and funnel next that is in the vacuum pump or suction pump let’s see the reaction of the practical that is in the benzyl when reacts with the urea in presence of naoh ethanol it forms the intermediate heterocyclic pinacol which forms the phenytoin is also called as hydrantoin phi 5 diphenyl

Hyden join yes the principle behind this reaction that is in the base catalyzed reaction sequence is to produce proceed where the intermediate heterocyclic pinecone which on the acidification is the required high dentoin as a result of pinacolic rearrangement and the procedure is applicable to general to diarrheal one to dicatons let’s see the mechanism the

Benzyl will react with urea in presence of naoh ethanol and the hydrochloric acid it forms the intermediate heterocyclic pinecone here the pinnacle rearrangement starts with the protonation of the hydroxyl group that hydroxyl group eliminate as a water molecule and forms a carbocation this carbocation after one two phenyl shaped forms the stable carbocation which

Gives the protonated ketone and after the that abstraction of the proton molecule yields the phenytoin that is our important main product which is also called as five five different hidden tone now let’s see the procedure for that first of all you have to take the hundred ml of rbf then you have to take the two because among is that one because consists of 5.3 gram

Of benzyl 3 gram of urea 15 ml of 30 percent aqueous energy solution and another beaker consists of the 15 ml of ethanol then pour the all reaction mixtures in that rbf then attach the reflux condenser attach water inlet and outlet systems then starts the reflux for at least two hours then wait for two hours after completion of the reflux we have to filtered it

To remove the impurities and then the add ice cold water and concentrated hydrochloric acid to make the solution acidic after the acidification it yields the phenytoin and after the completion of this process filtered it the and recrystallized with the product with ethanol or industrial rectified spirit let’s do the calculations for theoretical yield practical

Yield and percentage yields here the limiting reagent is a benzyl hence yield should be calculated from the amount taken of benzyl molecular formula of benzyl that is on the c14 h10 o2 molecular weight is 210 gram per mole molecular formula of phenytoin is c15h12 n2o2 and molecular weight is 252 gram per mole let’s do the calculation of theoretical yield that

Is 210 gram of benzyl from 252 gram of phenytoin therefore the 5.3 gram of benzyl will forms the hexagram of phenytoid let’s do the cross multiplication x is equal to 252 into 5.3 upon 210 is equal to 6.36 so the theoretical yield is 6.36 gram we have to calculate the practical yield by measuring the our plot product then our practical yield after completion

Of practical l we have to calculate the percentage yield this percentage is equal to practically upon theoretical yield into 100. let’s see the reference books the google textbook of practical organic chemistry by bs furnace and tactile edition tactile fifth edition page number 153 the practical organic chemistry by hitisji rawal page number 313 thanks for

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Transcribed from video
How to Synthesize Phenytoin from Benzil By Sci-Hub