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Lauretta dean sold under the brand name claritin among others is a medication used to treat allergies this includes allergic rhinitis hay fever and hives it is also available in combination with pseudoephedrine a decongestant known as loratadine pseudoephedrine it is taken by mouth common side effects include sleepiness dry mouth and headache serious side effects

Are rare and include allergic reactions seizures and liver problems used during pregnancy appears to be safe but has not been well studied it is not recommended in children less than two years old it is in the second-generation antihistamine family of medication loratadine was discovered in 1981 and came to market in 1993 it is on the world health organization’s

List of essential medicines the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system loratadine is available as a generic medication the wholesale cost in the developing world is about one cent to 0.06 for doses of 2015 in the united states it is available over-the-counter medical uses loratadine is indicated for the symptomatic relief of allergies such as

Hay fever allergic rhinitis attic area hives chronic idiopathic urticaria and other skin allergies for allergic rhinitis loratadine is effective for both nasal and eye symptoms sneezing runny nose and itchy or burning eyes similarly to sukira zine loratadine attenuates the itching associated with kimura’s disease forms the drug is available in many different forms

Including tablets oral suspension and syrup and in combination with pseudoephedrine also available or quick dissolving tablets which are marketed as being faster to get into one circulatory system but require special handling to avoid degrading in the package contraindications patients with severe hepatic liver disorders may need to start with a lower dose no dose

Adaptation is necessary for elderly or renal e kidney impaired patients loratadine is usually compatible with breast feeding classified category l2 by the american academy of pediatrics in the u.s. it is classified as category b in pregnancy meaning animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus but no adequate in well controlled studies

In pregnant women have been conducted adverse effects aza non-sedating antihistamine loratadine causes less but still significant in some cases sedation and psychomotor retardation than the older antihistamines because it penetrates the blood-brain barrier to a smaller extent other possible side effects include headache and antimuscarinic effects such as urinary

Retention dry mouth blurred vision and gastrointestinal problems interactions substances that act as inhibitors of the cyp3a4 enzymes such as ketoconazole erythromycin cimetidine and fir anakim are in derivatives found in grapefruit lead to increased plasma levels of loratadine that is more of the drug was present in the bloodstream than typical for a dose this had

Clinically significant effects in controlled trials of higher than usual doses of loratadine 20 milligrams antihistamines should be discontinued about 48 hours prior to skin allergy tests since these drugs may prevent or diminish otherwise positive reactions to dermal activity indicators pharmacology mechanism of action loratadine is a tricyclic antidepressant h1

Receptors the potency of second generation histamine antagonists is from strongest to weakest destler adenine ki 0.4 mm greater than leva cetirizine ki 3 nm greater than superiors een ki 6 nm greater than fexofenadine ki 10 nm greater than turf n adeem greater than loretta dean however the onset of action varies significantly and clinical efficacy is not always

Directly related to only the h1 receptor potency pharmacokinetics loratadine is given orally is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and has rapid first pass hepatic metabolism it is metabolized by isoenzymes of the cytochrome p450 system including cyp3a4 cyp2d6 and to a lesser extent several others loratadine is almost totally 97 to 99 percent found

To plasma proteins its metabolites destler adenine which is largely responsible for the antihistamine urge ik effect binds to plasma proteins by 73 to 76 percent loratadine s peak effect occurs after one to two hours and it’s biological half-life is on average eight hours range 3 to 20 hours with dessler adenine as half-life being 27 hours range 9 to 92 hours

Accounting for its long lasting effect about 40% is excreted as conjugated metabolites into the urine and a similar amount is excreted into the feces traces of unmetabolized loratadine can be found in the urine in structure it is closely related to tricyclic antidepressants such as emit ramin and is distantly related to the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine history

Shirring plow developed loratadine as part of a quest for a potential blockbuster drug a non-sedating antihistamine however by the time shirring submitted the drug to the us food and drug administration fda for approval the agency had already approved a competitor’s non-sedating antihistamine trophy nadine tradename seldane and therefore put loratadine on a lower

Priority loratadine was approved by the fda in 1993 the drug continued to be available only by prescription in the us until it went off patent in 2002 it was then subsequently approved for over-the-counter sales once it became an unpatented over-the-counter drug the price dropped significantly shirring also developed destler added een clarinets areas which is an

Active metabolite of loratadine society and culture over the counter regulation in 1998 in an unprecedented action the american insurance company anthem petitioned the fda to allow loratadine and two other antihistamines to be made available over-the-counter otc while it was still under patent the fda granted the request which was not binding on manufacturers in

The us shirring plow made loratadine available otc in 2002 as of 2015 loretta dean was available in many countries otc brands as of 2017 loratadine was available under many brand names and dosage forms worldwide including several combination drug formulations with pseudoephedrine paracetamol betamethasone and raxil salbutamol phenylephrine and dexamethasone marketing

The marketing of the claritin brand is important in the history of direct-to-consumer advertising of drugs the first television commercial for a drug was aired in the u.s. in 1983 by boots and sparked controversy the fda responded with strong regulation requiring disclosure of side effects and other information these rules made pharmaceutical manufacturers bakit

Spending money on ads that had to highlight negative aspects in the mid-1990s the marketing team for claritin at shirring plough found a way around these rules they created brand awareness commercials that never actually said what the drug was for but instead showed sunny images and the voice-over said things like at last a clear day is here and it’s time for

Claritin and repeatedly told viewers to ask your doctor about claritin the first ads succeeded in making people aware of the brand and increased prescriptions which led schering-plough and others to aggressively pursue the advertising strategy this trend along with advice from its attorneys that it could not win a first amendment case on the issue led the fda to

Issue new rules for tv commercials in 1997 instead of including them brief summary that took up a full page in magazine ads and would take too long to explain in a tv commercial drug makers were allowed to refer viewers to print ads one to eight hundred numbers or websites and urge people to talk to their doctor if they wanted additional information shirring plow

Invested three hundred twenty two million dollars in claritin direct to consumer advertising in 1998 in 1999 far more than any other brand overall spending on direct to consumer advertising by the pharmaceutical industry rose from 360 million dollars in 1995 to 1.3 billion dollars in 1998 and by 2006 was 5 billion dollars see also venza cyclohexene as a de dean

Laurie tidy – chlorine atom and esther references external links loratadine medlineplus drug information us national library of medicine national institutes of health claritin loratadine drug description rx list internet drug index us national library of medicine drug information portal loratadine

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