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Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Budesonide, Ungerer&Veznedaroglu

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“Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Budesonide”, a University of Pennsylvania Biochemistry Project by Heather Ungerer and Lauren Veznedaroglu. April 2019.

Oh yeah good how are you what’s going on not so good my head is just like pounding and so much like pressured so sinusitis is actually the most commonly prescribed antibiotic for infection in the us but 18 to 22 million people visit doctors every year for sinusitis from a healthcare standpoint it’s considered now to cost about eight billion dollars in annual

Health care costs both between doctors visits sick days and lost productivity this graph displays the impact of chronic rhinosinusitis or crs on health-related quality of life compared to the non crs group the crs group had a significant decrease of seven and five point five in the mean score of the physical and mental component summaries reflecting overall lower

Self-reported quality of life when compared to the non crs group crs has significantly burned some in the physical and mental realms of patient lives sinuses are small air-filled cavities between the bones of the head and face healthy sinuses are lined with soft tissue called mucosa and a thin layer of mucous we have for sinuses on each side of our face our frontal

Ethmoid maxillary and sphenoid sinuses chronic rhinosinusitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes swelling of the nasal mucosa leading to decreased drainage and mucus buildup inside the sinuses the widely accepted inflammation pathway is that an antigen either a bacteria or an airborne particulate such as cigarette smoke or allergens such as pollen or

Mold spores irritate the surface mucosa within the nose this then triggers an immune system response which leads to inflammation antigen presenting cells are a class of molecules including dendritic cells macrophages and b-cells and they’re embedded within the epithelium which is the tissue that lines the surfaces of the body including the insides of the sinuses

The antigen presenting cells which are in this case dendritic cells have legs or sensors that will adapt to certain antigens or stimuli once they detect an antigen and become activated they then present the antigen t-helper two or th2 cells th2 cells orchestrate protective type to immune responses by secreting interleukins the main interleukins that contribute to

The inflammatory response in chronic rhinosinusitis are il four five and thirteen interleukins are proteins that crosstalk between the different cell types to coordinate an immune response when the th two cells secrete interleukins they act to recruit other immune cells such as eosinophils eosinophils are important because they’re a type of disease fighting red

Blood cell that can cause symptoms of crs so prednisone is an oral steroid or any oral corticosteroids actually works the best so it’ll work better than budesonide which is a topical irrigation steroid the problem with prednisone is it has lots of systemic side effects so prednisone has side effects going from if you go top to bottom can form cataracts glaucoma you

Can have hypertension from this develop diabetes stomach ulcers gi issues osteoporosis budesonide is an anti inflammatory glucocorticoid with the molecular formula of c25 h 3406 it is a lip of soluble molecule that is able to freely diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane unlike oral steroids budesonide is administered intranasally through

A rinse to decrease inflammation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis research suggests that the mechanism of be denied administered intranasally is analogous to the mechanism of action of budesonide usage in treating asthma budesonide works by first entering the cell and then binding to the cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor also known as the gr from there

It translocates to the nucleus where it binds to a segment of dna called the glucocorticoid receptor response element or the gre this is located in the promoter region of the inflammatory genes in dna this binding blocks inflammatory gene transcription which leads to down regulation of production of inflammatory mediators such as th2 cells so frequently this

Down-regulation means that there is an overall decreased production of receptors such as antigen presenting cells in the cell membrane with this decrease in receptors the nasal mucosa becomes less sensitive to antigens and stimuli because there are fewer receptors and thus less production of inflammatory mediators in order to limit the overall inflammatory response

While budesonide irrigations have proven to be extremely effective due to the mechanism of down regulation this therapy takes time to work in general it takes about six weeks for the standard patient to see the effects of down regulation of transcription however the future treatment of chronic sinusitis is moving towards an exciting new advancement called biologic

Therapy biologic drugs or biologics are genetically engineered from proteins derived from living cells or tissues pilum ab is the biologic that is closest to being approved for usage in patients with severe chronic rhinosinusitis it is currently approved for the treatment of asthma and eczema due pilum ab works by binding to interleukin 4 receptor alpha which

Is a subunit of the receptor that interleukin 4 and 13 have in common when do pilum ab binds to this interleukin 4 our alpha subunit it prevents interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 from going into their channels if movement through the receptor into the channels blocked then ultimately the signaling of these two cytokines is also blocked blocking the signaling of

Interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 causes a downstream effect by disrupting inter communication between cells that participate in type 2 inflammation you

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Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Budesonide, Ungerer&Veznedaroglu By Lauren Veznedaroglu