Skip to content

Moxifloxacin – Wikipedia Article Audio

  • by

For more information, please, visit: This is an audio version of a Wikipedia article created for the benefit of those who have vision problems or problem reading at night. This Wikipedia article audio was created under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike. To view the original article, go to

Moxifloxacin wikipedia article audio moxifloxacin sold under the brand name a velox among others is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections this includes pneumonia conjunctivitis endocarditis tuberculosis and sinusitis it is used by mouth by injection into a vein or as an eye drop medical uses susceptible bacteria adverse effects asians and see

Pediatric population shins mechanism of action kinetics chemistry history patent society and culture regulatory actions generic equivalents common side effects include diarrhea dizziness and headache severe side effects may include spontaneous tendon ruptures nerve damage and worsening of myasthenia gravis safety of use in pregnancy or breastfeeding is unclear

Moxifloxacin is in the fluoroquinolone family of medications it usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to duplicate dna moxifloxacin was approved for use in the united states in 1999 it is on the world health organization’s list of essential medicines the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system the wholesale cost in

The developing world is forty five cents to two us dollars and seventy cents per day as of 2015 in the united states as of 2017 the wholesale cost is about four us dollars per day moxifloxacin is used to treat a number of infections including respiratory tract infections cellulitis anthrax intra-abdominal infections endocarditis meningitis and tuberculosis in the

United states moxifloxacin is licensed for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis community-acquired pneumonia complicated and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections in the european union it is licensed for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis

Non severe community-acquired pneumonia an acute bacterial sinusitis based on its investigation into reports of rare but severe cases of liver toxicity and skin reactions the european medicines agency recommended in 2008 that the use of the by mouth form of moxifloxacin be restricted to infections in which other antibacterial agents cannot be used or have failed in the

Us the marketing approval does not contain these restrictions though the label contains prominent warnings against skin reactions the initial approval by the fda encompassed these indications additional indications approved by the fda are the european medicines agency has advised that for pneumonia acute bacterial sinusitis and acute exacerbations of copd it should

Only be used when other antibiotics are inappropriate no uses within the pediatric population for oral and intravenous moxifloxacin have been approved a significant number of drugs found within this class including moxifloxacin are not licensed by the fda for use in children due to the risk of permanent injury to the musculoskeletal system moxifloxacin is approved

For the treatment of conjunctival infections caused by susceptible bacteria a broad spectrum of bacteria is susceptible including rare but serious adverse effects that may occur as a result of moxifloxacin therapy include irreversible peripheral neuropathy spontaneous tendon rupture and tendinitis hepatitis psychiatric effects torsades de pointes stevens-johnson

Syndrome and clostridium difficile associated disease and photosensitivity / photo toxicity reactions several reports suggest the use of moxifloxacin may lead to uveitis only two listed contraindications are found within the 2008 package insert though not stated as such within the package insert zip razzie done is also considered to be contraindicated as it may have

The potential to prolong qt interval moxifloxacin should also be avoided in patients with uncorrect adha vocal emia or concurrent administration of other medications known to prolong the qt interval moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients suffering from diabetes as glucose regulation may be significantly altered moxifloxacin is also considered to be

Contraindicated within the pediatric population pregnancy nursing mothers patients with a history of tendon disorder patients with documented qt prolongation and patients with epilepsy or other seizure disorders co administration of moxifloxacin with other drugs that also prolong the qt interval or induce braddock our dea’s should be avoided careful consideration

Should be given in the use of moxifloxacin in patients with cardiovascular disease including those with conduction abnormalities while controlled studies of the safety of moxifloxacin in pregnancy or lactating mothers have not been performed animal studies suggest the potential for harm to the fetus in pregnancy and suggest that moxifloxacin may be excreted into

The milk of lactating mothers decisions as to whether to continue therapy during pregnancy or while breastfeeding should take the potential risk of harm to the fetus or child into account as well as the importance of the drug to the well-being of the mother the safety of moxifloxacin and children under age 18 has not been established animal studies suggest the

Potential for musculoskeletal harm in juveniles moxifloxacin is not believed to be associated with clinically significant drug interactions due to inhibition or stimulation of hepatic metabolism thus it should not for the most part require special clinical or laboratory monitoring to ensure its safety moxifloxacin has a potential for a serious drug interaction

With nsaids the combination of corticosteroids and moxifloxacin has increased potential to result in tendinitis and disability antacids containing aluminium or magnesium ions inhibit the absorption of moxifloxacin drugs that prolong the qt interval may have an additive effect on qt prolongation and lead to increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias the international

Normalized ratio may be increased or decreased in patients treated with warfarin in the event of acute overdose the stomach should be emptied an adequate hydration maintained ecg monitoring is recommended due to the possibility of qt interval prolongation the patient should be carefully observed and given supportive treatment the administration of activated charcoal as

Soon as possible after oral overdose may prevent excessive increase of systemic moxifloxacin exposure about 3% and 9% of the dose of moxifloxacin as well as about 2% and 4.5 percent of its closure on ied metabolites are removed by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis respectively moxifloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against

Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria it functions by inhibiting dna gyrase a type 2 topoisomerase and topoisomerase for enzymes necessary to separate bacterial dna thereby inhibiting cell replication about 52% of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin is metabolised vehicle corona and sulfate conjugation the cytochrome p450 system is not involved in

Moxifloxacin metabolism and is not affected by moxifloxacin the sulfate conjugate accounts for around 38% of the dose and is eliminated primarily in the feces approximately 14% of an oral or intravenous dose is converted to a glock urine i’d conjugate which is excreted exclusively in the urine peak plasma concentrations of m2 are about 40% those of the parent drug

While plasma concentrations of m1 are in general less than 10% those of moxifloxacin in vitro studies with cytochrome p450 enzymes indicate that moxifloxacin does not inhibit ad cyp3a4 cyp2d6 cyp2c9 cyp2c19 or cyp 1a2 suggesting that moxifloxacin is unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by these enzymes the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin

In pediatric subjects have not been studied the half-life of moxifloxacin is eleven point five to fifteen point six hours about forty-five percent of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin is excreted as unchanged drug a total of 96 plus or minus four percent of an oral dose is excreted as either unchanged drug or known metabolites the mean apparent total

Body clearance and renal clearance are 12 plus or minus 2l /h and 2.6 plus or minus 0.5 l /h respectively the csf penetration of moxifloxacin is 70% to 80% in patients with meningitis moxifloxacin mono hydrochloride is a slightly yellow to yellow crystalline substance it is synthesized in several steps the first involving the preparation of racemic 2 comma 8 dye as

Abyss cyclin onin which is then resolved using tartaric acid a suitably derivative quinol in carboxylic acid is then introduced in the presence of dab co followed by acidification to form moxifloxacin hydrochloride moxifloxacin was first patented in 1991 by bayer ag and again in 1997 a velox was subsequently approved by the us food and drug administration for use

In the united states in 1999 to treat specific bacterial infections ranking one hundred and fortieth within the top 200 prescribed drugs in the united states for 2007 a velox generated sales of six hundred and ninety seven point three million dollars worldwide acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis acute bacterial sinusitis community-acquired pneumonia april

2001 uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections may 2004 community-acquired pneumonia caused by multi drug-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae june 2005 complicated skin and skin structure infections november 2005 complicated intra-abdominal infections staphylococcus aureus staphylococcus epidermidis streptococcus pneumoniae haemophilus influenzae klebsiella

Species moraxella catarrhalis enterobacter species mycobacterium species bacillus anthracis mycoplasma genitalium non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs although not observed with moxifloxacin in preclinical and clinical trials the concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a fluoroquinolone may increase the risks of cns stimulation

And convulsions moxifloxacin is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to moxifloxacin any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents or any of the product components moxifloxacin is also manufactured by al khan as vega mocks a united states patent application was made on june 30th 1989 for a velox bayer ag being the assignee

Which was subsequently approved on february 5th 1991 this patent was scheduled to expire on june 30th 2009 however this patent was extended for an additional two and one-half years on september 16 2004 and as such was not expected to expire until 2012 moxifloxacin was subsequently approved by the fda for use in the united states in 1999 at least four additional

United states patents have been filed regarding moxifloxacin hydrochloride since the 1989 united states application as well as patents outside of the usa regulatory agencies have taken actions to address certain rare but serious adverse events associated with moxifloxacin therapy based on its investigation into reports of rare but severe cases of liver toxicity

And skin reactions the european medicines agency recommended in 2008 that the use of the oral form of moxifloxacin be restricted to infections in which other antibacterial agents cannot be used or have failed similarly the canadian label includes a warning of the risk of liver injury the us label does not contain restrictions similar to the european label but it

Carries a black box warning of the risk of tendon damage and /or rupture and warnings regarding the risk of irreversible peripheral neuropathy in 2007 the us district court for the district of delaware held that to bear patents on a velox are valid and enforceable and infringed by dr. reddy’s and afore a generic version of a velox the district court sided with bayer

Citing the federal circuit’s prior decision in takeda v alpha farm as affirming the district courts finding that defendant failed to prove a prima facie case of obvious ‘no swear the prior art disclosed a broad selection of compounds any one of which could have been selected as a lead compound for further investigation and defendant did not prove that the prior art

Would have led to the selection of the particular compound singled out by defendant according to bayers press release announcing the court’s decision it was noted that tavaa had also challenged the validity of the same bayer patents at issue in the dr. reddy’s case within bayers first quarter 2008 stockholders newsletter bayer stated that they had reached an agreement

With dave afar masu tickles usa inc the adverse party to settle their patent litigation with regard to the – bayer patents under the settlement terms agreed upon table would obtain a license to sell its generic moxifloxacin tablet product in the u.s. shortly before the second of the two bayer patents expires in march 2014 in bangladesh it is available with brand name of optim-ox

Transcribed from video
Moxifloxacin – Wikipedia Article Audio By Wikipedia Audio