Skip to content


  • by

Hello friends

Hello dear friends welcome to my channel after a long time now today we will study something about human physiology some questions and answers basically it involves neuroendocrine system mostly some other systems are also involved but mostly it contains neuroendocrine system the very first question is what is protoporophiline it is also known as ferrous

Protoporphyrin it is nothing but him hymn of hemoglobin it is the protoporphyrin in our body let me tell you one thing if you haven’t subscribed my channel please do it as early as possible so that i can post similar items every time name the inhibitors of blood coagulation answer is oxalates citrates and heparin next is what is the state of iron in met hemoglobin

It’s in ferric state or ferrostate it’s in ferric state normal hemoglobin level in blood what it is it is 10 to 15 gram percentage 13.5 to 17.5 gram per deciliter in male and 12 to 15.5 gram per deciliter in females what is prosthetic group of hemoglobin again it’s him what do you mean by virilism virilism means appearance of male secondary sexual characters

Like beard mustache and cessation of menstrual cycle in females what are glucocorticoids glucocorticoids are actually steroid hormones produced by zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex which are mainly concerned with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions and with metabolism of carbohydrates lipids and proteins for example cortisol corticosterone

Etc these hormones have glucose regulating properties that’s why they are called glucocorticoids what are characteristics of diabetes mellitus basically there are few characteristics four or five basic characteristics it has hyperglycemia hyperglycemia means hyper means more glycae means glucose emia means blood it is about 300 to 1200 mg per 100 ml of blood

Then there is polyurea means more urination frequent urination polydipsia means very frequent thirst high thirst polyphagia hunger and glucosuria means presence of glucose in urine what do you mean by silent areas of brain these are the areas present in the cerebrum or cerebellum surface on which lesions cause no sensory or motor symptoms are you getting the

Points next we come to mammillary bodies what are mamillary bodies these are a pair of small nipple shaped round bodies located at the ends of anterior arches of phonics these are part of hypothermias now fornix is the primary outgoing pathway from the hippocampus and involved in memory what is pepe’s circuit it’s a fundamental component of the limbic system

Of the brain it is closed neural circuitry that starts and ends in hippocampus have you heard about amygdala is amygdalis structure in the brain neural structure it is important part of the limbic system involved with processing of emotions memories and motivation what do you mean by valves of violence this is a thin layer of white matter stretching between

Two superior cerebellar peduncles forming roof of superior races of the fourth ventricle we come to another part of the question now here it is durameter arachnoid and pia mater or parameter this is from the meninges durometer is made up of fibrous connective tissue composed of two layers periosteal or industrial layer and meningeal layer it contains durable

Venous sinuses in between these two layers it creates falx celebrity tentorium cerebelli frog cerebelli and diaphrama celly second is the middle one is arachnoid matter it is made up of reticular connective tissues it’s composed of collagen and elastic fibers now pyromater parameter is the innermost layer it is comprised of collagen and reticular fibers it is

Highly vascular layer that supply the underlying surface of the brain over cerebrum it creates a perivascular space now have you heard about this simone’s disease or simon’s disease it’s also known as pituitary cataxia it’s a chronic deficiency of function of the hypophysis it’s a type of hypopituitarism it leads to atrophy of the heart liver spleen thyroid

Adrenals and gonads and it results in emaciation and death if left untreated sheehan syndrome i hope you have heard about this term this is damage to the pituitary gland caused due to loss of life-threatening amount of blood during childbirth causing severe low blood pressure and excessive hypoxia only in females the symptoms are shrinkage of breasts low bp

Low blood sugar inability to regrow shaved pubic hairs infrequent menstruation what is nelson syndrome it’s a syndrome caused due to enlargement of hypophysis it occurs in person’s wonderful surgical removal of adrenal glands for cushing’s disease symptoms are intense skin discoloration vision impairment cessation of menstrual periods absence of cortisol and

Aldosterone have you heard about acromegria it’s a premature menopause syndrome it’s a rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability having polyneuropathy premature ovarian insufficiency and brachiidectaily next we come to adrenal gland or suprarenal gland it has got two parts cortex which is mesodermal origin and medulla which is ectodermal in origin cortex

Contains three layers first layer is zona glomerulosa which secretes mineral corticoids like aldosterone deoxycorticosterone fluid drocotzone this is the structure of aldosterone the hypersecretion of aldosterone causes corn syndrome or aldosteronism with symptoms like high bp high blood volume without edema high sodium and low potassium in plasma damaging

The kidneys second layer is sonar fasciculata which secretes glucocorticoids and sex corticoids like cortisol cortisone dexamethasone produced prednisone hydrocortisone prednisolone butanoid etc its hypersecretion results into cushing syndrome with symptoms like moon phase buffalo like hump wasting of mineral leads to wasting of limb muscles now zonality

Reticularis is the innermost layer of cortex which secretes sex corticoids like ethenal testosterone metroxyproges and norgestrel the medulla consists of chromaffin cells which secrete two types of hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine which are known as catecholamines why does glucocorticoid have inflammatory effect because it induces synthesis of lipocotine

Which is inhibitor of phospholipase because it also inhibits formation of the precursor arachidonite the hormones of thymus gland thymus is also a gland in front of the heart in the chest region it has got two hormones thymosin and thymine thymosin is secreted by reticular epithelial cells which produces antibodies to keep the young ones immune it accelerates

Cell division hypersecretion leads to myasthenia gravis with abnormalities in myo neuron junction another hormone is thymine which may be of two types thymine one thymin ii the help in inhibition of release of acetylcholine at motor and plate which is the strongest nerve in human body it’s none other but sciatic nerve it’s the largest and thickest its main

Continuation of all roots of the sacral plexus the smallest nerve in our body is struck learner which is fourth cranial nerve the least number of actions are present so it is the smallest and yet has longest intracranial core hyposecration of glucocorticoids leads to cushing syndrome as we have discussed earlier now we come to the end of this lecture the

Hyposecration of both mineralocorticoid and cortisol leads to addison’s disease having excessive loss of sodium chloride and bicarbonate ions it increases potassium ions it has got bronze pigmentation of the skin with low bp and decreased resistance to infection zona fasciculate and zona reticularis together secret sex corticoids these hormones are secreted by

Or as dhea means d hydroxy epi and rosterone they also secrete androsterone which are androgens androstenetion and female sex hormones like estrogen and progesterone its hyper secretion causes two defects in females one is hirsutism means presence of facial hairs and excess body hairs and another is virilism having presence of male secondary sexual characters

Like facial hairs beard and mustache having male-like voice and stopage of menstruation and overgrowth of clitoris in females in males it leads to gynecomastia having enlarged breasts in males the next question is formation of epinephrine how is epinephrine formed the mother it starts from the mother product tyrosine tyrosine tyrosine gives rise to dopa means

Dihydroxyphenylalanine with the effect of tyrosine hydroxylase dopa gets transformed into dopamine with the help of dopa decarboxylase dopamine forms norepinephrine with the help of dopamine beta hydroxylase norepinephrine forms epinephrine with the help of phenyl ethanolamine in methyl transferase hypersecretion of adrenaline causes hypertension high blood sugar

High bmr nervousness and sweating progesterone is called pregnancy hormone generally its hyposecration results in abortion so it is also called anti-abortion hormone inhibin hormone it’s produced by corpus luteum placenta and testis the three parts of our body they produce inhibit it helps to supplement effect of excess sex hormones for depressing gonadotropic

Activity like fsh lh icsh with this we end our lecture so have a nice time and a good result thank you

Transcribed from video