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Oral Antidiabetic Medications: Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, Biguanides – Pharmacology – Endocrine

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Key information regarding oral antidiabetic medications. The mode of action, side effects, and patient teaching for the following drug classes and medications: Sulfonylureas (glipizide, glyburide), Meglitinides (repaglinide), Biguanides (metformin).

Hi. i’m cathy with levelup rn. in this video,  i am going to cover some oral antidiabetic   agents. and if you have our pharmacology second  edition flashcards, definitely pull those out   so you can follow along with me. and at the end  of the video, i’m going to provide a little quiz   to test your knowledge of some of the

Key points  that i’ll be covering in this video. so definitely   there will be a blooper reel at the end of   this video because i will be pronouncing some  of the oral antidiabetic medication class names,   so thank you for your patience. and if you are   in need of a good laugh, then definitely stay  tuned for

Those bloopers at the end of the video.   mention before i get into specific classes   is that oral antidiabetic agents are just for type  2 diabetes. so if a patient has type 1 diabetes,   they are insulin-dependent, so they will just  get insulin. for patients with type 2 diabetes,   they can be given insulin or oral

Antidiabetic  agents. so that’s definitely important to know.   the other thing i wanted to mention is that with a  lot of these oral antidiabetic agents, a key side   effect of these medications will be hypoglycemia.  so just like with blood pressure medications,   if the dose is too high, that blood pressure can  come

Down too low. we can end up with hypotension.   with these oral antidiabetic medications, their  job is to bring blood sugar levels down. if they   do their job too well, or we give the patient too  high of a dose, we can end up with hypoglycemia,   i want to talk about here are sulfonylureas.  and medications that fall within

This class   include glipizide and glyburide. these medications  help to bring a patient’s blood sugar levels down   by increasing the release of insulin from the  pancreas. a contraindication of this drug class   would be a sulfa allergy. and side effects of this  drug class include hypoglycemia, like we talked  

Include tachycardia, diaphoresis, shakiness,   headache, and weakness. other side effects can  include photosensitivity and gi upset. in terms   of patient teaching, we want to advise our patient  to take this medication 30 minutes before a meal.   they should not use alcohol. and they definitely  need to wear sunscreen when

They go outside   because of that side effect of photosensitivity.  so our cool chicken hint for this card, which you   can find here at the top of the card, is when you  look at the drug names glipizide and glyburide,   it makes me think of riding or sliding down a  slide. so that helps me to remember that you’re  

Going down the slide, and blood sugar levels are  coming down with you. also, slides are often in   playgrounds outside. so when i think about being  outside, i think about the sun being above me,   and that helps me to remember photosensitivity as  a side effect of this medication cause as well.  medication that falls within this

Class is   repaglinide. this medication class has essentially  the same mode of action as the sulfonylureas.   so they help to increase insulin release from the  pancreas. side effects include hypoglycemia again,   as well as angina. and then in terms of patient  teaching, you want to advise your patient to   take this

Medication three times a day, and eat  within 30 minutes of taking the medication. so the   way i remember this medication, if you look at the  drug name repaglinide, that pag, p-a-g, reminds me   of a pageant. so i think of a woman who is about  to compete in a pageant, and she’s about to go   and she’s feeling dizzy. she has

Diaphoresis   and is weak. and she’s attributing all of these  signs and symptoms to being nervous about going   she just started taking repaglinide, and   it’s actually her medication that is causing that  angina, as well as the symptoms of hypoglycemia.  all right. next, we have our biguanides, which  includes a medication

Metformin. this medication   class works by decreasing glucose production in  the liver, and increasing the uptake of glucose by   the body cells. side effects can include gi upset,  a metallic taste, as well as lactic acidosis.   and the signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis  include diarrhea, dizziness, hypotension,  

Weakness, and bradycardia. in terms of patient  teaching that you need to provide for a patient   medication with a meal. they should not use   alcohol. and if they are scheduled for a procedure  that will require them to be npo or a procedure   that requires contrast dye, we need to discontinue  metformin 48 hours prior to that

Procedure.   so my little cool chicken hint for remembering  some of the key side effects of metformin, is   if you look at the word metformin, you got formin  as part of that. so i imagine a foreman going to   a construction site with his metal thermos. and  as he’s drinking from his thermos, he has like a   metallic

Taste. he’s like, oh, this doesn’t taste  good. and suddenly he feels really bad too. he has   diarrhea. he feels weak. he feels dizzy. and he’s  chalking it up to this new thermos that he bought,   when in actuality it is his metformin medication  that he just started taking for type 2 diabetes   causing those signs and symptoms of

Lactic   okay. time for quiz. i have three  oral antidiabetics can be used with both  type 1 and type 2 diabetes, true or false?   agents should only be used with patients   second question, what is a key side  effect of many oral antidiabetic agents?   if you said hypoglycemia, you are correct.   agent carries

A risk for lactic acidosis?   the answer is metformin. okay. i hope this quiz  has been helpful. if you would like to see more   quizzes at the end of my videos, definitely leave  me a comment, and be sure to like this video as   next up, we have our gluta– i’m sorry. has  essentially the same mode of action as the  

I invite you to subscribe to our channel  and share a link with your classmates and   friends in nursing school. if you found value  in this video, be sure and hit the like button,   what you found particularly helpful.

Transcribed from video
Oral Antidiabetic Medications: Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, Biguanides – Pharmacology – Endocrine By Level Up RN