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Pharmacology Basics:Musculoskeletal Medications Part I

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This basic pharmacology video reviews musculoskeletal medications.This video is designed for the nursing student to master basic pharmacology content.

This is powerpoint lecture for muscular skeletal system medications. in this part one, we’re going to talk about disorders and specialty medications. the muscular skeletal system consists of bones, muscles, and tendons. the system relies on the nervous system and the endocrine systems to function properly. bones give our bodies a structural framework for tendons to

Attach to. it also provides support for soft tissue. it protects internal organs from injury and stores calcium magnesium and potassium. provides a signal that makes the muscles contract. the endocrine system controls the deposit of minerals, which help muscles move. the thyroid gland makes calcitonin, which let the calcium stay in the bone. the parathyroid hormone

Takes calcium out of the bone to maintain a normal calcium blood level. besides building bone calcium also plays a major role in muscle contraction and nerve conduction. magnesium and potassium also affect the muscular skeletal system functioning. muscle disorders can originate in the brain such as stroke cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis. or, they can’t originate

In the muscle tissue like muscular dystrophy. muscle spasms and dystonia or abnormal tension of the muscles can develop from muscle disorders. psychotropic medications can also cause these kind of symptoms and side effects so we need to watch for these. may be used for treatment of muscular disorders. these medications work with the central nervous system to inhibit

The neurologic activity that causes the spasm. again remember, anytime we work with medications that affect the central nervous system you know we need to teach our patients when they take these kind of medication to take precautions not to fall or to drink alcohol with these medications. botulinum. this bacteria in high doses it can cause food poisoning. research has

Shown in low doses that this toxin acts as an antispasmodic acetylcholine plays a role in skeletal muscle movement. when botox is injected, acetylcholine is blocked and the muscle is paralyzed. this effect though is not permanent. it has to be repeated every 3 to 6 months we recognize botox as a cosmetic drug that decreases wrinkles, subsequent pain in many disorders

Like migraines, limb spasms, abnormal head positions, and other disorders fibromyalgia is a disorder of chronic pain in the muscles and soft tissues surrounding the joints this disorder can be really difficult to manage decreasing contributory factors like lack of exercise. physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, trigger point injections, and narcotic analgesics.

Your book highlighted pregablin or lyrica which can be used for fibromyalgia or neuropathy which is nerve pain. treating nerve pain is a whole different ball game. gaba is a neurotransmitter that quiets nerves so we enhance this chemical to quiet things down. hypocalcemia or low calcium risks factors include estrogen or testosterone smoking decreases estrogen levels

In men and women and increases the risk of hypocalcemia. other factors are high alcohol use and poor nutrition. it escorts the calcium into the intestine so it can get absorbed and used by our bodies. when calcium levels are low it’s not stored in the bones and it can lead to soft brittle deform bones. this is called osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children.

Osteoporosis occurs with a lack of calcium. with osteoporosis, holes are created in the bones, and it leads to a sponge-like appearance. when they are like this the bones break easily. hypocalcemia is treated with calcium and vitamin d supplements. vitamin d again assists in the absorption of calcium and maintenance of adequate levels in the blood for proper bone

Development. estrogen replacement therapy may be used too and that inhibits bone reabsorption of calcium thus reducing blood clots. so the physician must discuss the benefits versus the risks for this treatment. alendronate or fosamax is a bio- phosphate. these medications help strengthen the bones and prevent fractures. they’re used in men and women to treat or

Prevent actually osteoporosis. so here’s a little bone anatomy. break down the old bone. these bio- phosphate medications, they kill the osteo class thereby slowing bone loss. they’re taken once a week and the side effects are headache, abdominal pain, and bone pain. fosamax is known to cause irritation to the gastro intestinal lining and it may worsen directions for

Administration are absolutely critical that the patient understand these. these medications are to be taken at least a half hour before eating breakfast with only water. the patient cannot lay down for at least 30 minutes after taking this medication. no eating, drinking, or taking any other you know, i think one interesting fact is the half-life of this medication is

10 years. you know there’s current discussion of course in the medical community now about how long patients really need to take this medication. arthritis is an inflammatory condition of the bone and joints. common chronic condition of the joints. it occurs when the cartilage or the cushion between the joints break down and it leads to pain, stiffness and swelling.

As it progresses the cartilage wears away and bone rubs against bone. this disorder mainly affects middle-aged and older adults those who are extremely sedentary or rheumatoid arthritis is slightly different because it’s an autoimmune condition. the body’s immune system, which normally protects its health by attacking foreign substances like bacteria and viruses women

30 to 50 years of age and children can be affected. the treatment for arthritis is usually are nsaids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen. so again the treatment for bone and joint inflammation can include our nsaids non-steroidal like ibuprofen or naproxen, or cox-2 inhibitors like celebrex. dmars and our monoclonal antibodies. we’re

Going to discuss these in the next couple slides. monoclonal antibodies are considered biological drugs. biological drugs are produced by living cells, and they work on individual immune proteins. tnf for tissue necrosis factor-alpha is an important inflammatory mediator, and it’s made by our immune systems, and it helps keep infections at a minimum. it gets its name

By its ability to kill cancer cells. but, in excess this chemical can initiate the systemic inflammation of things like rheumatoid arthritis and crohn’s disease adalimumab or humera is one of the top 10 ordered medications in 2015. this classification of medications end in “mab” m-a-b. we need to think about the risk of developing serious infections with our “mabs”

Including tuberculosis, because that tnf that we reviewed it keeps latent tb inactive, so when you block tnf a or alpha with these medications ,tb can reactivate and systemic tuberculosis can happen. these medications are given by injection every two weeks. these medications will also be reviewed when we cover cancer therapy because these substances can attack cancer

Cells and be used in cancer treatment. gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in some people who have high levels of uric acid in the blood. uric acid can form needle-like crystals in the joint and cause sudden, severe episodes of pain, tenderness, redness, swelling, and warmth. for some, the first symptom of gout is gout can appear in the ankle, the foot,

And the knees and according to arthritis foundation, gout occurs in about four percent of american adults, glucocorticoids, and anti gout medications. the anti gout medications lowers the uric acid level. these drugs help prevent attacks, but they don’t relieve them, and they’re generally needed to be taken for a lifetime. patients should not begin allopurinol for gout

Treatment until after an acute attack of gout has completely settled. taking these medications can be challenging. as uric acid levels drop, crystals in the joints can shift and actually trigger another attack. side effects of the medications are an acute gout attack, headache, gi symptoms, and skin rash. skin rash is one of the most common adverse reactions. this rash

Can be so severe that this medication has to be stopped immediately. according to our arthritis foundation, gout occurs in about four percent of american adults about 6 million men and 2 million women. are used in rheumatoid arthritis when other drugs are ineffective. they suppress the body’s systems. these drugs may slow down joint destruction, but they’re not a cure.

They’re often used in combination with other medications. traditional dmar’s restrict your immune system broadly. gold or thioglucose is a dmar and is given by injection or orally. these medications work best in the early stages of the disease. methotrexate is one of our newer more effective traditional dmar’s. side effects of this medication include nausea, individuals

On these medications have a higher risk of getting sick, so care must be taken to stay away from people who are sick and you know there’s some new targeted dmar’s on the market like the xeljanz and they block precise this concludes part 1 of the muscular skeletal system medications. make sure that you view part 2. in part 2 we’re going to go over our foundational pain medications and

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Pharmacology Basics:Musculoskeletal Medications Part I By Tanya Gwin